Keygenning with KLEE

Introduction

In the past weeks I enjoyed working on reversing a piece of software (don't ask me the name), to study how serial numbers are validated. The story the user has to follow is pretty common: download the trial, pay, get the serial number, use it in the annoying nag screen to get the fully functional version of the software.

Since my purpose is to not damage the company developing the software, I will not mention the name of the software, nor I will publish the final key generator in binary form, nor its source code. My goal is instead to study a real case of serial number validation, and to highlight its weaknesses.

In this post we are going to take a look at the steps I followed to reverse the serial validation process and to make a key generator using KLEE symbolic virtual machine. We are not going to follow all the details on the reversing part, since you cannot reproduce them on your own. We will concentrate our thoughts on the key-generator itself: that is the most interesting part.

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Taming a wild nanomite-protected MIPS binary with symbolic execution: No Such Crackme

As last year, the French conference No Such Con returns for its second edition in Paris from the 19th of November until the 21th of November. And again, the brilliant Eloi Vanderbeken & his mates at Synacktiv put together a series of three security challenges especially for this occasion. Apparently, the three tasks have already been solved by awesome @0xfab which won the competition, hats off :).

To be honest I couldn't resist to try at least the first step, as I know that Eloi always builds really twisted and nice binaries ; so I figured I should just give it a go!

But this time we are trying something different though: this post has been co-authored by both Emilien Girault (@emiliengirault) and I. As we have slightly different solutions, we figured it would be a good idea to write those up inside a single post. This article starts with an introduction to the challenge and will then fork, presenting my solution and his.

As the article is quite long, here is the complete table of contents:

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